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Monday, December 3

  1. page home edited Atherosclerosis ... the heart become narrow are narrowed, it can ... angina (chest pain),…

    Atherosclerosis
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    the heart become narroware narrowed, it can
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    angina (chest pain),pain) and shortness
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    a heart attackattack; unless the
    {http://www.humanillnesses.com/photos/embolism-2327.jpg} Material build-up on artery walls (Embolism)
    Formation of Atherosclerosis
    ...
    The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the transfer coefficient for particles that are submicron in size. Particle concentration, {Particle Concentration.jpg} , is present for the concentration in the stream and the concentration on the surface of the small particle.
    According to both Sheikholeslami & Watkinson and Kim & Webb, the rate of deposition can be approximated using a factor called the sticking probability, Sp, which is the portion of the particles that make it to the surface and attach. When considering the process of particulate fouling, we must analyze it in two steps. The first being the attachment of the particulates to the inner wall of the tube, and the second being the attachment of new particulates on the existing ones attached to the wall. In the case of blood vessels, this would be the process of LDL cholesterol initially attaching to the inner wall and forming macrophage foam cells, followed by further attachment of LDL on the existing deposit.
    ...
    lipoprotein is especially described in
    References
    Atherosclerosis . (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from Drugs Information Online: http://drugline.org/ail/pathography/2673/
    (view changes)
    9:53 pm
  2. page References edited ... Catapano, A. L., Maggi, F. M., & Tragni, E. (2000). Low density lipoprotein oxidation, ant…
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    Catapano, A. L., Maggi, F. M., & Tragni, E. (2000). Low density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atherosclerosis. Current opinion in cardiology,15(5), 355.
    Davis, E. N. (2004, December 23). Atherosclerosis - An Inflammatory Process. Retrieved November 4, 2012, from The American Academy of Insurance Medicine: http://www.aaimedicine.org/journal-of-insurance-medicine/jim/2005/037-01-0072.pdf
    Donetti, E., Soma, M. R., Barberi, L., Paoletti, R., Fumagalli, R., Roma, P., & Catapano, A. L. (1998). Dual effects of the antioxidant agents probucol and carvedilol on proliferative and fatty lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Atherosclerosis, 141(1), 45-51.
    Embolism. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from Human Diseases and Conditions: http://www.humanillnesses.com/original/E-Ga/Embolism.html#b
    Encyclopaedia Britannica. (2007). Low-Density Lipoprotein. Retrieved October 18, 2012, from Encyclopaedia Britannica: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/92254/Cutaway-view-of-a-low-density-lipoprotein-complex-The-LDL
    Esterbauer, H., Wäg, G., & Puhl, H. (1993). Lipid peroxidation and its role in atherosclerosis. British Medical Bulletin, 49(3), 566-576.
    Falk, E., De, F., & Shah, P. K. (2009). Ischemic heart disease. London, Manson.
    FEUERSTEIN, G. Z., & R., R. R. (1995). Carvedilol, a novel multiple action antihypertensive agent with antioxidant activity and the potential for myocardial and vascular protection. European Heart Journal.
    Fouling. (n.d.). Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Dictionary and Thesaurus : http://fouling.askdefine.com/
    Goldstein, J. L., & Brown, M. S. (1977). The low-density lipoprotein pathway and its relation to atherosclerosis. Annual Review of Biochemistry(46), 897-930.
    (view changes)
    9:46 pm
  3. page References edited ... Nae-Hyun, K., & Webb, R. L. (1990). Particulate fouling of water in tubes having a two-dim…
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    Nae-Hyun, K., & Webb, R. L. (1990). Particulate fouling of water in tubes having a two-dimensional roughness geometry. Retrieved November 2, 2012, from Science Direct: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0017931091902313#
    New Way of Treating Atherosclerosis - Targeting Innate and Adaptive Immunity. (n.d.). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from European Atherosclerosis Society: http://www2.kenes.com/eas2011/info/Documents/New%20ways%20of%20treating%20atherosclerosis%20-%20targeting%20innate%20and%20adaptive%20immunity.pdf
    Norata, G., Pirillo, A., & Catapano, A. (2003). Statins and Oxidative Stress During Atherogenesis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Risk.
    Powell, J. T. (1998). Vascular damage from smoking: disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Vascular Medicine, 21-28.
    QIAGEN . (2000-2010). LDL Oxidation in Atherogenesis. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from SABiosciences: http://www.sabiosciences.com/pathway.php?sn=LDL_Oxidation_in_Atherogenesis
    (view changes)
    9:45 pm
  4. page 2. Atherosclersois Prevention edited ... Donetti, E., Soma, M. R., Barberi, L., Paoletti, R., Fumagalli, R., Roma, P., & Catapano, …
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    Donetti, E., Soma, M. R., Barberi, L., Paoletti, R., Fumagalli, R., Roma, P., & Catapano, A. L. (1998). Dual effects of the antioxidant agents probucol and carvedilol on proliferative and fatty lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Atherosclerosis, 141(1), 45-51.
    FEUERSTEIN, G. Z., & R., R. R. (1995). Carvedilol, a novel multiple action antihypertensive agent with antioxidant activity and the potential for myocardial and vascular protection. European Heart Journal.
    Norata, G., Pirillo, A., & Catapano, A. (2003). Statins and Oxidative Stress During Atherogenesis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Risk.
    How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? (2011, July 1). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/treatment.html
    How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels? (2011, December 20). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/smo/
    (view changes)
    9:43 pm
  5. page 2. Atherosclersois Prevention edited ... Vitamin E Vitamin E is one of the most prominent antioxidants studied in atherosclerosis prev…
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    Vitamin E
    Vitamin E is one of the most prominent antioxidants studied in atherosclerosis prevention. It lowers the amount of monocytes entering the arterial wall, which causes inflammation, and decreases interactions between adhesion molecules and endothelial cells, which is a leading cause of fatty streaks and plaque formation. Vitamin E is also important as a chain-breaking antioxidant; it helps to prevent both polyunsaturated fatty acids from undergoing lipid peroxidation and modification of proteins such as Apo-B (Meydani, 2001).
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    it's nonantioxidant properties (Meydani, 2001).properties. These are
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    plaque formation. Vitamin E also reduces the number of ligands on monocytes and thereby reduces their adhesive interactions. (Meydani, 2001)
    Vitamin E is still not conclusively considered a prevention because the results vary study upon study.
    {http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ed/VitaminErad.png} Vitamin E Structure
    (view changes)
    9:42 pm
  6. page 2. Atherosclersois Prevention edited ... Hypertension High blood pressure can cause damage to the lining in the blood vessel wall, con…
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    Hypertension
    High blood pressure can cause damage to the lining in the blood vessel wall, contributing to endothelial dysfunction. In combination with hyperlipidaemia, formation of artheromatous plaques are the end result. By exercising and/or taking medication like beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, and water pills (diuretics), it is possible to lower blood pressure decreasing the risk of atherosclerotic disease (Zhao, et al., 2004).
    One Beta blocker of particular importance is Carvedilol. Carvedilol exhibits antioxidant properties and has been known to steal free oxygen radicals, which are known to be involved in the lipid peroxidation. Of all the beta blockers Carvedilol is much more powerful in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, especially when it is initiated by iron metal ions. It also prevents the amount of antioxidants, such as Vitamin E, from becoming significantly reduced. (Feuerstein & R., 1995)
    Cholesterol Medication
    Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl co-enzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors) are the most commonly used drug to regulate cholesterol. It functions to lower LDL cholesterol levels and also increase HDL cholesterol in the blood. Statins inhibits the synthesis of hepatic (liver) cholesterol synthesis, thereby decreasing the concentration of cholesterol in the liver. This causes LDL receptors to become more susceptible to plasma LDL uptake to balance out the decrease of concentration in the liver. More LDL cholesterol uptake by the liver from the blood results in lower LDL levels (Willacy, 2010).
    Statins such as "fluvastatin and lovastatin" attach to lipoproteins and prevent the release of free radicals from the core when it is undergoes oxidative stress. "Simvastatin" reduces the amount of macrophages and it protect the lipoproteins from becoming oxidized. (Norata, Pirillo, & Catapano, 2003)
    Probucol
    Probucol is an anti-hyperlipidemic drug which counteracts oxidation of LDL by preventing the formation of fatty streaks and reducing the amount of cholesterol and cholesterol esters in macrophages. It protects the vessel wall by reducing oxidative damage caused by free radicals and thus preventing atherogenic plaque from forming within the wall.

    Surgery
    There is no medication or treatment besides surgery capable of removing the plaque built up in the carotid arteries. The following are the most popular procedures recommended by surgeons.
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    Carotid Endarterectomy. (2011, February). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from Society of Vascular Surgery: http://www.vascularweb.org/vascularhealth/Pages/carotid-endarterectomy.aspx
    Catapano, A. L., Maggi, F. M., & Tragni, E. (2000). Low density lipoprotein oxidation, antioxidants, and atherosclerosis. Current opinion in cardiology,15(5), 355.
    Donetti, E., Soma, M. R., Barberi, L., Paoletti, R., Fumagalli, R., Roma, P., & Catapano, A. L. (1998). Dual effects of the antioxidant agents probucol and carvedilol on proliferative and fatty lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.Atherosclerosis, 141(1), 45-51.
    FEUERSTEIN, G. Z., & R., R. R. (1995). Carvedilol, a novel multiple action antihypertensive agent with antioxidant activity and the potential for myocardial and vascular protection. European Heart Journal.
    Norata, G., Pirillo, A., & Catapano, A. (2003). Statins and Oxidative Stress During Atherogenesis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Risk.

    How Is Atherosclerosis Treated? (2011, July 1). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/atherosclerosis/treatment.html
    How Does Smoking Affect the Heart and Blood Vessels? (2011, December 20). Retrieved November 1, 2012, from National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/smo/
    Meydani, M. (2001). Vitamin E and atherosclerosis: beyond prevention of LDL oxidation. The Journal of nutrition, 131(2), 366S-368S.
    Norata, G., Pirillo, A., & Catapano, A. (2003). Statins and Oxidative Stress During Atherogenesis. European Journal of Cardiovascular Risk.
    Powell, J. T. (1998). Vascular damage from smoking: disease mechanisms at the arterial wall. Vascular Medicine, 21-28.
    Sävykoski née Huittinen, T. (2003). 2.4 Atherosclerosis. Retrieved November 1, 2012, from Oulu University Library: http://herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9514269853/html/x1017.html
    (view changes)
    9:37 pm
  7. page home edited ... The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the t…
    ...
    The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the transfer coefficient for particles that are submicron in size. Particle concentration, {Particle Concentration.jpg} , is present for the concentration in the stream and the concentration on the surface of the small particle.
    According to both Sheikholeslami & Watkinson and Kim & Webb, the rate of deposition can be approximated using a factor called the sticking probability, Sp, which is the portion of the particles that make it to the surface and attach. When considering the process of particulate fouling, we must analyze it in two steps. The first being the attachment of the particulates to the inner wall of the tube, and the second being the attachment of new particulates on the existing ones attached to the wall. In the case of blood vessels, this would be the process of LDL cholesterol initially attaching to the inner wall and forming macrophage foam cells, followed by further attachment of LDL on the existing deposit.
    ...
    further detail.
    References
    Atherosclerosis . (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from Drugs Information Online: http://drugline.org/ail/pathography/2673/
    (view changes)
    5:45 pm
  8. page home edited ... The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the t…
    ...
    The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the transfer coefficient for particles that are submicron in size. Particle concentration, {Particle Concentration.jpg} , is present for the concentration in the stream and the concentration on the surface of the small particle.
    According to both Sheikholeslami & Watkinson and Kim & Webb, the rate of deposition can be approximated using a factor called the sticking probability, Sp, which is the portion of the particles that make it to the surface and attach. When considering the process of particulate fouling, we must analyze it in two steps. The first being the attachment of the particulates to the inner wall of the tube, and the second being the attachment of new particulates on the existing ones attached to the wall. In the case of blood vessels, this would be the process of LDL cholesterol initially attaching to the inner wall and forming macrophage foam cells, followed by further attachment of LDL on the existing deposit.
    ...
    limited, future directionlooksdirection looks into paths
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    disease are presentedincluded as well.well as a more detailed exploration of the make-up of low-density lipoprotein. The chemical
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    explored in further detail.
    References
    Atherosclerosis . (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from Drugs Information Online: http://drugline.org/ail/pathography/2673/
    (view changes)
    5:43 pm
  9. page home edited ... The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the t…
    ...
    The transport coefficient, {Deposition Flux Eqn.jpg} , can be shown to also be equal to the transfer coefficient for particles that are submicron in size. Particle concentration, {Particle Concentration.jpg} , is present for the concentration in the stream and the concentration on the surface of the small particle.
    According to both Sheikholeslami & Watkinson and Kim & Webb, the rate of deposition can be approximated using a factor called the sticking probability, Sp, which is the portion of the particles that make it to the surface and attach. When considering the process of particulate fouling, we must analyze it in two steps. The first being the attachment of the particulates to the inner wall of the tube, and the second being the attachment of new particulates on the existing ones attached to the wall. In the case of blood vessels, this would be the process of LDL cholesterol initially attaching to the inner wall and forming macrophage foam cells, followed by further attachment of LDL on the existing deposit.
    ...
    and mechanisms. The risk factors and demographics behind heart disease are presented as well. The preventive
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    limited, future direction looksdirectionlooks into paths
    ...
    been hypothesized. The risk factors and demographics behind heart disease are presented as well. The chemical
    References
    Atherosclerosis . (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2012, from Drugs Information Online: http://drugline.org/ail/pathography/2673/
    (view changes)
    5:39 pm

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